Aretha Franklin’s “Lady Soul”

Cover for Aretha Franklin's album Lady Soul

This week, I’ve been listening to Aretha Franklin’s album “Lady Soul” from 1968. This marked her twelfth album released in seven years since her first in 1961. Just over a week ago, I spent a week with her tenth album, “I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You” from 1967. Both are fantastic. The songs of Aretha Franklin often played in our house when I was growing up. My mom had a copy of the “30 Greatest Hits” compilation on CD. She and my sister listened to it a lot. “Natural Woman” and “Respect” especially got a lot of play. Though her music filled my childhood, it took several years before I actually developed my own appreciation. Franklin’s singing amazes every time I hear her. She knows how to fill the songs with such emotion and power. A lot of singers attempt the same and often just sound like they are yelling. Aretha Franklin sings!

Chain of Fools

The album opens with “Chain of Fools,” written by Don Covay. The speaker of the song is in a relationship with a philanderer. She discovers that he has other lovers and that she is just one of many “fools.” And yet, she is determined to stick it out as long as she can handle. They use the metaphor of a chain consisting of links to represent the collection of lovers. This metaphor is used throughout the song, maintaining consistency.

There are three verses, the first two are eight lines, the third consists of four. Each set of four lines follows a ABCB rhyme scheme. With the exception of “fool/cruel” and “break/take” the rhymes are not strict. We have “man/chain”, “link/strength”, and “home/strong.”

For five long years
I thought you were my man
But I found out, love
I’m just a link in your chain
You got me where you want me
I ain’t nothing but your fool
You treated me mean
You treated me cruel

There is no real chord progression to the song, though there is plenty of groove and movement. The song provides soulful rock riffs over the same chord all the way through. The guitar mostly plays arpeggios, with a little melodic riffing, of the same minor chord. Joe South’s lead guitar plays some gritty low notes through a clean amplifier, again it’s simple but effective. The bass guitar rolls along, mostly repeating the same two bar pattern, one bar answering the other.

A Natural Woman

The soulful “(You Make Me Feel) Like a Natural Woman” closed side A of the record. Carole King wrote this song with her then husband and songwriting partner Gerry Goffin. I heard this song so much as a child that it feels like the first verse and chorus are just woven into me. It reminds me of the front door and windows being open throughout the house in the early spring. The lead and backing vocals joining and dancing around each other.

Spooner Oldham’s perfectly understated piano starts the song with a simple set of chords, like the piano in a small church. The verses follow a chord progression of I-V-VIIā™­-IV. Then Aretha begins “Looking out on the morning rain,” joined by the bass guitar. Gradually, the strings and drums also begin to play. A gentle, cautious, pre-chorus follows ii7-iii7, a progression that feels like it’s waiting for strength. Then the strings and backing vocals rise up in the chorus with religious joy, “You make me feel.. you make me feel.. You make me feel like a natural woman!”

Looking out on the morning rain
I used to feel so uninspired
And when I knew I had to face another day
Lord, it made me feel so tired
Before the day I met you
Life was so unkind
But you’re the key to
My peace of mind
‘Cause you make me feel
You make me feel
You make me feel like
A natural woman

Adele’s “21”

Cover for Adele's album 21

This week, I’ve been listening to Adele’s second album “21” from 2011. I first became aware of Adele with the song “Chasing Pavements” from her debut album. She reminded my wife and I of singers like Duffy and Amy Winehouse who were doing a revival of jazzy-blues soul in pop music during the aughts. I thought Adele was a fantastic singer, but the songs didn’t grab me quite as much as those of Duffy and Winehouse. I heard “21” a lot in the house after it came out, but I never really spent time listening to it on my own until now. Though they’re still not really to my tastes, these are good solid songs worth the time.

Rumour Has It

The second track “Rumor Has It” provides a good example of story-telling in song. The narrator is speaking to a man with whom she shares feelings. He’s already with a young woman, but is secretly seeing the narrator on the side. It seems that he has been talking too much, because rumors are getting around. And now the singer hears that he is planning on leaving his lover for the narrator. Ah, but with the last line, she sticks the knife in: “But rumor has it, he’s the one I’m leaving you for.”

The lyrics tell none of this through straight narrative; It is revealed through what is likely a soliloquy. The songs consists of two verses, a prechorus, and a bridge. The bridge provides foreshadowing for the twist at the end, “Just because I said it, don’t mean that I meant it; Just because you heard it…” The verses following an AABBCD rhyme scheme, using slant rhymes: “real” with”will” and “age” with “strayed.” The chorus is pure hook, consisting of the repeated phrase, “rumor has it, rumor has it.”

The music mixes big-band swing drums with pop soul. The instrumentation is actually pretty simple. The vocals drive the song while being supported by the drums. Bass, piano, strings, and electric guitar provide further accompaniment, but these sit back in the mix. It’s the backing “oooo” and “rumor has it” backing vocals that are brought more forward.

Set Fire to the Rain

A lone piano opens “Set Fire to the Rain” with an arpeggio. After four bars, the vocals and a simple tom-drum pattern enter. After eight more bars, a bass guitar joins filling in the bottom end. There are then eight more bars to the first verse before the pre-chorus begins. With the pre-chorus, the strings begin to come in quietly in the background, the vocals drop down a little in energy. There’s a brief rest and then the chorus starts. The chorus brings the strings in full with the vocals rising up in energy and pitch. It’s a very aughts way to do a chorus, for a while it was almost part of the definition. For a while, I made a point of writing choruses that did the opposite, but even then I realized that even the opposite is a variation of the same.

Someone Like You

Adele closes the album with one of the best tracks, “Someone Like You.” The instrumentation is beautifully and emotionally simple, just piano and lead vocals. The bridge presents the only exception, with Adele singing her own backing vocals. The piano plays a spinning arpeggio that follows the same melodic pattern through most of the track. The vocals really indicate the difference between verse and chorus.

The refrain before each chorus is well-written heart-breaking and catchy set of lyrics. The great line “I hate to turn up out of the blue uninvited” sticks with you. The sparse instrumentation and the slight drop down in energy into the refrain emphasizes the emotion, there’s a touch of shame in the sadness. It’s absolutely that feeling one has after a break-up before fully letting go. That bit of a thread remains, even when the relationship is gone. If only they knew…

I hate to turn up out of the blue uninvited
But I couldn’t stay away, I couldn’t fight it
I had hoped you’d see my face
And that you’d be reminded that for me, it isn’t over

Lauryn Hill’s “The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill”

album cover of The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill

This week, I’ve been listening to Lauryn’s Hill’s debut solo album “The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill” from 1998. Though I was aware of its existence, I missed out on this album when it came out. I was well aware of the group Lauryn had just left, the Fugees, through their cover of “Killing Me Softly” from radio play. Lori Lieberman recorded the original, but it’s more likely that the Fugees cover more resembles the Robert Flack recording. Lauryn Hill’s singing was great, but I found the percussion and reggae vocal injections (“one time.. two times..”) annoying.

The Fugees had recently split up in 1997 and Hill began work on her this solo album. Bandmates Hill and Wyclef Jean had been romantically involved during their time in the Fugees. Jean continued the relationship even his marriage to another woman. During this affair, Hill started dating Bob Marley’s son Rohan, who was already married with two children. Rohan and his wife soon divorced and he and Hill stayed together and she soon had a son with Rohan. These are the circumstances under which Lauryn wrote this album, which touches on many of these topics.

Apparently, Lauryn drew some inspiration (and samples) from the movie “The Education of Sonny Carson.” I don’t know if there was much inspiration beyond the title, but the whole movie IS currently on YouTube. Several moments that reminded me of Stevie Wonder, especially “Every Ghetto, Every City.

From what I can gather in just one week, there’s an over-arching theme to the album running through between-song skits and emphasized by the album title. During the opening track, we hear an elementary school class start with the roll-call and Lauryn Hill is absent. She is absent on the day that the class learns about love, as revealed throughout the rest of the skit segments throughout the album. The point being that Lauryn missed out on the lessons of love and had to learn the hard way, by making mistakes. That’s probably how we all do it, actually.

Lost Ones

The first proper song of the album “Lost Ones” slam right into a rhyme-filled response to an ex after separation. Hill explains how she is the emancipated winner after the breakup. The chorus repeats “You might win some, but you just lost one.” referring to both Lauryn Hill and the battle.

The drum machine punches right in the middle, record scratches syncopation leading up to bar changes. Backing vocals echo and repeat the rhymes at the end of each line. The accompaniment is hard-hitting, but sparse. There’s not a lot going on underneath the vocals. Drum machine and record scratches run through the song, dropping out occasionally for emphasis. Dub-style echo-delay effected keys and guitars stab on the fourth beat of the verses, but even those are below the forward drums. A very low bass mostly rests, but plays notes to mark the movement from between every two or four measures.

There’s nearly non-stop rhyming, which has the effect of making some of the lyrics feel like punchlines. The verses do not have the same number of lines (18, 20, and 16), which is kind of strange. The first verse has the following rhyme scheme: A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-B-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A. The last line is the refrain “You might win some but you just lost one.” Hill delivers that line that doesn’t rhyme different, playing with the fact the third to last syllable DOES fit the rhyme scheme. The second verse: A-B-B-A-A-B-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-D-D-D-D, and those B’s are arguably slant rhymes of A. These lines are full of religious and cultural references, allegedly tying these comments directly to personal subject matter. Much lays on idea of temptation, repentance, and judgement.

Every man want to act like he’s exempt
Need to get down on his knees and repent
Can’t slick talk on the day of judgment
Your movement’s similar to a serpent
Tried to play straight, how your whole style bent?
Consequence is no coincidence
Hypocrites always want to play innocent
Always want to take it to the full out extent
Always want to make it seem like good intent
Never want to face it when it time for punishment

Ex-Factor

The feeling changes with the soulful next track, “Ex-Factor.” Here, the kick drum is still the strongest part of the accompaniment, but there’s much more instrumentation. A simple two note piano motif repeats at the end of several bars, creating movement. There are two organs: a gospel organ playing extended chords through a rotary speaker in the right channel, and a jazz organ playing ascending bright notes in the left channel. Where Hill rapped in the previous, here she sings beautifully. Both of which she does extremely well.

Lyrically, this song shows another emotional layer to the same breakup of the “Lost Ones.” Hill sings more about loss, confusion and helplessness in the face of betrayal. She’s been lied to and hurt; still accusing, but instead of preaching, she’s asking why. With this pair of tracks, we’re given two sides of why Hill should move on.

It could all be so simple
But you’d rather make it hard
Loving you is like a battle
And we both end up with scars
Tell me, who I have to be
To get some reciprocity
No one loves you more than me
And no one ever will

Doo-Wop (That Thing)

“Doo-Wop (That Thing)” mixes some instrumentation of doo-wop with hip hop. The song, however, lacks the doo-wop chord progression, but rather has an strange iii-ii chord progression. The horn riff plays a IV-iii-ii, with a pause after the ii chord. You can feel the resolution to the tonic, but it never actually happens. I like that.

The cautionary lyrics talk about one-night stands and reckless dating. Hill advises both men and women to grow up, be true, and sincere. She also warns about the temptations of sex that can lead to betrayal and dishonesty. Wordplay happens throughout, sometimes with lines rhyming with each other and featuring plenty of clever internal rhymes.

Talking out your neck, saying you’re a Christian
A Muslim, sleeping with the jinn(gin)
Now that was the sin that did Jezebel in
Who you going to tell when the repercussions spin?
Showing off your ass cause you’re thinking it’s a trend
Girlfriend, let me break it down for you again
You know I only say it cause I’m truly genuine
Don’t be a hard rock when you really are a gem

James Brown and the Famous Flames’ “Live at the Apollo”

Album cover for Live At The Apollo

I’ve been listening to James Brown’s live album “Live at the Apollo” from 1963, this week. The record captures an amazing performance of James Brown and the Famous Flames at the Apollo in Harlem the previous year. It’s a great collection of R&B, Soul, and the beginnings of Funk The Famous Flames provide the backing vocals. The band consisted of a drummer, a bassist, a guitarist, an organist, and seven horns. Among those horns, we can hear saxophonist St. Clair Pinckney, who played with Brown until 1999 and had a couple of solo albums in the 80s.

The album opens with an aggrandizing track with organist Lucas “Fats” Gonder introducing James Brown, “So now ladies and gentlemen, it is star time… the hardest working man in show business.” Then Brown performs shuffling rhythm and blues track “I’ll Go Crazy” with a guitar line that rolls along like a locomotive. The song starts without any accompaniment as Brown sings with response from the audience: “You know I feel alright! (yeah) You know I feel alright, children (yeah) I feel alright!” He and the crowd just sound like they are having a great time and the interactions are real.

Try Me

Brown starts the soulful third track “Try Me” with just his voice singing the titular first line. We’ll immediate recognize the doo-wop chord progression of I-vi-IV-V, as well as the fairly typical doo-wop rhythm pattern. The Famous Flames sing ‘dooo… ooo’ underneath Brown’s lines and then answer back, repeating his lines “Try me.”

As with many of Brown’s songs the emphasis falls on the first beat, but that is less prominent here out of respect for the genre. The hi hat hits on every eighth note, with just a mild touch of swing; brushes hit the snare every second and fourth beat. The bass walks up and down, bringing the change from one chord to the next. The bass also supports the backing vocals, by matching their rhythm when singing.

Night Train

“All aboard the Night Train!” Brown opens their cover of jazz saxophonist Jimmy Forrest’s 1951 tune “Night Train.” Though Forrest’s tune was really a reworking of an even older song “That’s The Blues, Old Man” by saxophonist Johnny Hodges in 1940. Hodges was a member of Duke Ellington’s band, and the melody may have some roots there as well.

It’s a melody I know well; I grew up hearing the cover by Marvin Berry and the Starlights from the Back to the Future soundtrack. This version by James Brown has tremendous more energy, groove, and funk. The addition of vocals grants it even more excitement. They aren’t even necessary, but they make it personable and tie it together into the loose concept of losing and finding love that seems to run through the album.

The song follows a basic 12 bar blues chord progression, with a distinctive clean guitar riff. The bass drives along, a nonstop groove train. I love the choppy chords played on the organ through a Leslie speaker. It’s energetic and lively. This constant shuffling grooving energy clearly had influences on many, even post-punk rock bands like the Jon Spencer Blues Explosion. I like that

Lost Someone

Brown keeps “Lost Someone” going for over ten minutes, frequently teasing the audience building suspense. He utilizes this technique throughout the album: leading up to something to create anticipation and then dropping into the next segment or song. In this case, what feels like an extremely extended bridge turns out to be a drawn out coda that ends suddenly with the next song.

In spite of, or because of, I’m not sure.. this was my favorite song on the album. No small feat considering for nearly 8 minutes, the band is playing pretty much the same two bars over and over. Sometimes, the horns will pull back a bit, or work an octave lower. A mid section of under 2 minutes has no horns, but then they return as if to say, “We’re not done with you yet.” Sometimes the bass will hold back, or the drums will pause. Then after Brown builds up intensity, like a preacher, the drums will hit the snare and cymbal. The audience will scream in reaction.

This is a strong example of what the Music Genome project calls Extensive Vamping. The band will play the same short phrase repeatedly while a lead instrument will riff, or solo, over top. In this case, James Brown’s voice plays the role of the lead instrument. He teases and excites the audience. Encourages them to scream along, “Don’t just go “aah”, go “ow!”

I got something I want tell everybody
And I got something I everybody to understand now
You know we all make mistakes sometimes
And all the ways we can correct our mistakes
We got to try one more time
So I got sing this song to you one more time
I want you to know I’m not singing this song for myself now
I’m not singing the song only for myself now
I’m sing it for you too
And if I say stuff that makes you feel good inside
When I say that little thing
I say that little part that might sting you in your heart now
I want to hear your scream
I want to hear say ow!